Curated List of Scientific Papers and Other Resources

MAY 04, 2021

Scientific Papers By Ccs Staff

These selected papers by CCS Staff, outline the limitations of animal research to human benefit and how human-specific research methods offer a more effective option.


Bailey J, Balls M.  Clinical impact of high- profile animal-based research reported in the UK national press. BMJ Open Science 2020;4:e100039. doi:10.1136/bmjos-2019-100039

Animal-based biomedical ‘breakthroughs’ reported in the UK national press in 1995 were evaluated for eventual human clinical benefit. Over speculation and exaggeration of human relevance were evident in all the articles examined. Of 27 unique published ‘breakthroughs’, only one had clearly resulted in human benefit. The results of animal-based preclinical research studies are commonly overstated in media reports, to prematurely imply often- imminent ‘breakthroughs’ relevant to human medicine. 


Bailey J & Balls M (2020). Repeating Nonhuman Primate Tests of COVID-19 Vaccines is a Folly: Human Vaccine Development Must Focus on Human Biology

Response to an article asserting that monkey experiments were vital for the development of COVID-19 vaccines.


Bailey J. Genetic Modification of Animals: Scientific and Ethical Issues. In: Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change. Eds. K Herrmann & K Jayne (2019) Publisher: Brill.

Book chapter on serious caveats with CRISPR-based gene editing, particularly when used to create GM animals.


Bailey J & Balls M. (2019) Recent efforts to elucidate the scientific validity of animal-based drug tests by the pharmaceutical industry, pro-testing lobby groups, and animal welfare organizations. BMC Medical Ethics 20(1).

Summary of our previous work to assess the predictive nature of animal tests of new drugs, and critiques of others’ efforts to do the same.


Bailey J. (2018) Does the Stress of Laboratory Life and Experimentation on Animals Adversely Affect Research Data? A Critical Review. ATLA 46(5):291-305

Review of the adverse effects of unavoidable stress on animals in labs, on experimental data. 


Akhtar A. (2015). The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation. Camb Q Healthc Ethics.  24(4): 407–419. 

An overview of the unreliability of animal experimentation across many categories and the resultant human harms that follow.


Bailey J & Taylor K. (2016) Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity. ATLA 43(1):43-69

A critical evaluation of the impact of nonhuman primate research on human neuroscience, and assessment of the capabilities of human-specific methods.


Bailey J et al. (2015). Predicting human drug toxicity and safety via animal tests: Can any one species predict drug toxicity in any other, and do monkeys help? ATLA 43(6):393-403.

A review of our own analyses of the human-predictive nature of drug testing using animals.


Akhtar A, Pippin J, Sandusky C. (2009) Animal models in spinal cord injury: A systematic review of methylprednisolone. ATLA  37: 43-62. 

A systematic review that demonstrates the inconsistencies in data results for methylprednisolone across species.


Akhtar A, Pippin J, Sandusky C. (2008) Animal models in spinal cord injury: A review. Reviews in the Neurosciences 19: 47-60. 

This review explores reasons for discrepancies between promising animal studies and disappointing clinical trials and potential barriers to extrapolation of research results from animals to humans.


Bailey J. (2020) Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Human-Specific Biomedical Research and Testing Methods.

An overview intended to provide a snapshot of some salient and exciting developments and breakthroughs in various areas of biomedical research.


Green Scientific Papers By Other Authors Scientific Issues

Dirven H et al. 2021. Performance of preclinical models in predicting drug‐induced liver injury in humans: a systematic review.


Pound P, Ritskes-Hoitinga M. Is it possible to overcome issues of external validity in preclinical animal research? Why most animal models are bound to fail. J Transl Med, 2018, 16(1), 304.


Donald E. Ingber. Is it Time for Reviewer 3 to Request Human Organ Chip Experiments Instead of Animal Validation Studies? Advanced Science, 2020, 7(22).


Pound P, Bracken MB. Is animal research sufficiently evidence-based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research? BMJ, 2014, 348:g3387.


Scientific Papers By Other Authors Human Specific Testing & New Approach Methodologies

Feric NT et al. Engineered Cardiac Tissues Generated in the Biowire II: A Platform for Human-Based Drug Discovery. Toxicological Sciences, 2019, 1–9.


Qu Y et al. Inotropic assessment in engineered 3D cardiac tissues using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in the BiowireTM II platform. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2020 Sep;105:106886.


Lohasz C et al. Predicting Metabolism‐Related Drug–Drug Interactions Using a Microphysiological Multitissue System. Advanced Biosystems, 2020, 4(11).


Boos JA et al. Microfluidic Multitissue Platform for Advanced Embryotoxicity Testing In Vitro. Advanced Science, 2019, 6(13).


Guo X et al. A Human‐Based Functional NMJ System for Personalized ALS Modeling and Drug Testing. Advanced Therapeutics, 2020, 3(11).


Sasserath T et al. Differential Monocyte Actuation in a Three‐Organ Functional Innate Immune System‐on‐a‐Chip. Advanced Science, 2020, 7(13).


Caneus J et al. A human induced pluripotent stem cell‐derived cortical neuron human‐on‐a chip system to study Aβ42 and tau‐induced pathophysiological effects on long‐term potentiation. Alzheimers Dement (N Y), 2020, 6(1).


Materne EM et al. The Multi-organ Chip - A Microfluidic Platform for Long-term Multi-tissue Coculture. J Vis Exp, 2015 (98).


Lin N et al. Repeated dose multi-drug testing using a microfluidic chip-based coculture of human liver and kidney proximal tubules equivalents. Sci Rep, 2020, 10, 8879.


Baert Y et al. A multi-organ-chip co-culture of liver and testis equivalents: a first step toward a systemic male reprotoxicity model, Human Reproduction, 2020, 35(5), 1029–1044.


Schimek K. et al. Human multi-organ chip co-culture of bronchial lung culture and liver spheroids for substance exposure studies. Sci Rep, 2020, 10, 7865. 


Fonseca AC et al. Emulating Human Tissues and Organs: A Bioprinting Perspective Toward Personalized Medicine. Chem Rev, 2020, 120(19):11128-11174.


Gupta R. et al. Comparing in vitro human liver models to in vivo human liver using RNA-Seq. Arch Toxicol, 2021, 95, 573–589. 


Marx U et al. Biology-inspired microphysiological systems to advance patient benefit and animal welfare in drug development. ALTEX, 2020, 37(3), 365-394.


Other Reports Of Interest Blogswhite Papers, Etc.

Advancing new alternative methodologies at FDA. FDA, 2021.


Multi-Organ Microphysiological Systems are Poised for Expansive Integration. TissUse, 2020.


The evolution of strategies to minimise the risk of human DILI in drug discovery and development. Cyprotex, 2020.


Guides to ADME and Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Toxicity. Cyprotex, 2020.


Accelerating the Growth of Human-Relevant Sciences in the UK. The Alliance for Human-Relevant Science, 2020.


2019 State of the Discovery Nation Report, Medicines Discovery Catapult and the Bioindustry Association. New report unveils a thriving service and supply sector for UK medicines discovery | Medicines Discovery Catapult


2018 State of the Discovery Nation Report, Medicines Discovery Catapult and the Bioindustry Association. 


Video – Webinarstalksbiotech Company Resources Etc. (1)

Terasaki Institute for Biomedical Innovation – Fireside Chat: “Minimizing Animal Models.”


“Non-human primates in research: The case against its scientific necessity.” Talk at the Doctors Against Animal Experiments conference, Germany, 2018.


Other Videos (2)

Emulate’s organ/body-on-a-chip technology.


Creating Scientific Marvels that are Works of Art – TED talk by Don Ingber, Director of the Wyss Institute.


Human biology: an exploration of organs-on-chips. Webinar, sponsored by Emulate and Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 2021.


This is your brain on chips. Wyss Institute.


How Translational Research is Key to Achieving Biomedical Impact. Maurizio Vecchione, for the Terasaki Institute. 2020.


Teach me in 10 – organs-on-a-chip. Ali Khademhosseini, Terasaki Institute, 2020.


Development of a novel dynamic blood brain barrier model using Kirkstall Quasi-Vivo system for studying brain diseases and cytotoxicity testing. Dr. Sikha Saha, University of Leeds, UK. For Kirkstall Ltd., UK.


Kidney, liver, and gut-on-a-chip model systems in toxicity testing; and brain- and placenta-on-a-chip. Webinar, Dr. Kristin Bircsak, MIMETAS, USA.


Human-on-a-chip. Hesperos Inc. USA. Florida Simulation Summit, 2020.


Improving precision medicine with human tissue testing and genomics. Reprocell/Fios Genomics, 2021.


How Pharma is Using Human Tissues to Better Predict Drug Behaviour. Reprocell/Biopta, 2021.


Understanding the different approaches to 3D cell culture. Reprocell, 2021.


Human Tissue in Drug Discovery Scientific, Technical & Regulatory Perspective. Reprocell/Biopta, 2021.


TissUse - HUMIMIC Chip2. 2018.


Website Content

Boosting Toxicology Testing with Organ-Chips. Emulate, 2021.


Advances in In Vitro Brain Modeling for Neuroinflammatory Disease Research. Emulate, 2021.


Advances in In Vitro Brain Modeling for Newroinflammatory Disease Research, 2020.


Reviving cells after a heart attack. Wyss Institute, 2020.


Can Biosimulation Provide the Key to Unlocking the Neurodegenerative Disease Development Challenge? Van der Graaf P & Geerts H. 2021. AAPS Magazine.


How we established an in vitro Parkinson’s Disease model. Zara Puckrin, 2021. Reprocell, USA.


4 Examples of human models of respiratory diseases. Frederique Tholozan, 2020. Reprocell, USA.


4 reasons human tissues should be used to predict drug bioavailability. Zara Puckrin, 2020. Reprocell, USA.

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